(Romanian Transilvania), region in central Romania, before
1918 a part of Austria-Hungary.
is an elevated plateau entirely surrounded by the Transylvanian
Alps, a range of the Carpathian
Mountains. The mountains curve around the region like
a wall and in various places spread over the land. The chief
rivers are tributaries of the Tisza. The terrain is suitable
for growing fruits, cereal grains, and sugar beets. Wine is
also produced, and livestock is raised.
is rich in minerals, including gold, silver, salt, and coal.
Part of the Roman province of Dacia, the region became part
of the kingdom of Hungary in 1003. In 1526, after the defeat
of Hungary by the Turks, Transylvania became a separate principality
under the protection of the Turkish sultan.
which had previously claimed Transylvania, obtained possession
of the region by the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699, which concluded
war between Austria and Turkey. In 1765 the region was made
a grand principality of Austria and in 1849 an Austrian crown
land, but it was reunited with the Hungarian Kingdom in 1867
upon the formation of the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary.
became a part of Romania in December 1918 following World
War I. Hungary persisted in claiming the area because of its
large population of Magyars, who form the major ethnic group
during World War II, by the Italo-German award of August 30,
the northern part of Transylvania, including 44,000 sq km
(17,000 sq mi) with a population of 2,700,000, was given to
the war the ceded area was returned to Romania.
the majority of ethnic Hungarians in Romania live in the region
of Transylvania. Area, about 62,000 sq km (about 24,000 sq
Castle, dating from the 14th century, sits high in the
Carpathian Mountains in Romania's central region of
McCartney/Photo Researchers, Inc.
Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2001 http://encarta.msn.com
© 1997-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.