North American tribe, of the Algonquian
language family and of the Eastern
Woodlands culture area.
extensive territory reached into southern Canada between
Lake Huron and the Turtle Mountains in North Dakota.
to Ojibwa tradition, the tribe originally emigrated
from the region of the St. Lawrence River in the east,
in company with the related Ottawa
and Potawatomi. The three
tribes separated at what is now Mackinaw City, Michigan,
the Ojibwa spreading west along both shores of Lake
Superior, while the two other tribes went south.
Ojibwa tribe was scattered over a vast area. It comprised
a large number of bands divided into permanent clans.
Originally, the clans were
divided into five phratries, or groups, from which
more than 20 clans developed. One of the clans claimed
the hereditary chieftainship of the entire tribe;
another claimed precedence in the councils of war.
economy of the Ojibwa was based chiefly on hunting,
fishing, farming, and the gathering of wild fruits
and seeds, particularly the abundant wild rice; they
also made sugar from maple syrup.
houses were built on pole frames in wigwam shape and
were usually covered with birchbark. Birchbark sheets
were also used for keeping simple pictographic records
of tribal affairs.
mythology was elaborate; the chief religious and superstitious
rites centered around the Medewiwin, or grand medicine
the Ojibwa were one of the largest North American
tribes north of Mexico, they did not have extensive
relations with the early European explorers and settlers.
They became known to Europeans in the mid-17th century,
when they were confined within a narrow area along
the shore of Lake Superior by the incursions of the
Sioux and Fox.
acquired firearms from the French about 1690, drove
off their enemies, and greatly expanded their territory.
The Ojibwa supported the French against the English
in the various wars fought in North America-King
William's War, Queen Anne's
War, King George's War,
and the French and Indian
the American Revolution and the War of 1812, they
sided with the British against the Americans. In 1815
they joined with the other belligerent tribes in signing
a treaty of peace with the U.S. government. Under
the terms of subsequent treaties, they sold most of
In 1990 103,826 people in the United States claimed
Ojibwa ancestry; most lived on reservations in Michigan,
Minnesota, Wisconsin, North Dakota, and Montana.
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Chippewa Indians, also known as the Ojibway, lived
mainly in Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota,
and Ontario. They speak a form of the Algonquian language
and were closely related to the Ottawa
and Potawatomi Indians.
Chippewas were allies of the French and French traders
often married Chippewa women. Chippewa warriors fought
with the French against the British in the French
and Indian War. But political alliances changed
with the times. During the American Revolution the
Chippewas sided with the British against the Americans.
Anthony Wayne defeated the Chippewas who fought alongside
the Indians of the Ohio country at the Battle
of Fallen Timbers. They gave up their claim to
lands in Ohio with the signing of the Treaty of Greenville
(1794), the Treaty of Fort Harmar (1789), the Treaty
of Fort Industry (1805), and the Treaty of the Maumee
from the Ohio
Historical Society Site, for much more information,
please visit this site!
French, they were called Sauteux or Saulteux ("dwellers
by the Sault").
Chippewas occupied the northern shores of Lake Huron
and Lake Superior, from Georgian Bay to the Prairies
and northwards to the territory of the Cree,
to whom they were closely related (the boundary was
the watershed where the rivers flow north into Hudson
were divided into four groups, or tribes: the Ojibwas
of the Lake Superior region; the Mississaugas of Manitoulin
Island and of the mainland around the Mississagi River;
the Ottawas of the Georgian
Bay area; and the Potawatomis,
who lived on the west side of Lake Huron in what is
now Michigan. The Lake Superior Ojibwas, the Ottawas
and the Potawatomis formed a loose confederacy which,
in the eighteenth century, was called the Council
of Three Fires.
first Chippewas known to the French prior to 1660
were those around present-day Sault Ste. Marie, hence
the name "Sauters."
Dictionary of Canadian Biography"," G. Brown"," ed.)
of Civilization, Ottawa, Canada
can not destroy one who has dreamed a dream like mine."
("Gaa wiin daa-aangoshkigaazo ahaw enaabiyaan
will find much more examples and information on the
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